The Conversation That Can Change the Course of a Cardiac Arrest

Triptych of close up of eye, hands delivering CPR, mouth
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The call came in at 7:42:02 p.m. on March 21, 2019.

A male in his early 60s had actually simply taken a seat to supper with his child and her partner at an otherwise empty North Brooklyn dining establishment, when he unexpectedly plunged in his chair. The child screamed at a person hosting to call 911. Within seconds—by exactly 7:42:16, according to my evaluation of the event—a New york city City Fire Department emergency-response system had actually acknowledged the project, and would show up on the scene some 2 and a half minutes later on. In the meantime, a dispatcher remained on the line.

“Is this for you, or someone else?” the dispatcher asked the person hosting.

“For someone else,” the person hosting responded.  

“Is the person breathing?” the dispatcher asked.

Confusion. Was the guy having a seizure? Prior To long, it was developed that he was not taking and was unconscious. He had no noticeable pulse. The dispatcher advised the child and partner, both in their 30s, to reduce the guy down to the wood flooring, belly-up, and expose his chest.

The occasion was among the more than 350,000 out-of-hospital heart attacks that take place yearly in the United States. They are a leading cause of death, and just about one in 10 victims makes it through. Without early 911 gain access to and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)—the very first 2 links, followed by early defibrillation, in the out-of-hospital “chain of survival”—death is specific.

Over-the-phone CPR guideline by a dispatcher, likewise called telephone CPR or T-CPR, can make it possible for a caller to end up being an ordinary rescuer, and by doing so make the distinction in between life and death. Early CPR carried out by an ordinary rescuer is associated with an approximately twofold boost in the opportunities of survival.

Nevertheless, T-CPR is not as extensive as many 911 callers may anticipate. I would understand. The partner in this story? That’s me. The guy was my sweetheart’s papa, Todd. For him to have a shot at survival, either my partner or I would require to step in.

I will carry out CPR on my future father-in-law.


Many dispatchers are trained to acknowledge indications of heart attack from an oral description and after that direct callers to start CPR—even callers who may be in shock, as my partner and I were. However there is no universal requirement for dispatchers to do this. Few of the dispatch centers that have executed T-CPR procedures provide guidelines regularly, and less still have rigorous quality-improvement procedures in location. On the night of Todd’s heart attack, I was lucky that my hands were directed by the best dispatcher.

According to Robert Fazzino, a paramedic and the FDNY medical-affairs agent who acquired our event report, the person hosting handed the cordless phone to my partner, Lex, who then commended me. Kneeling over Todd’s tensed body, I wedged the receiver in between my best ear and shoulder. The dispatcher informed me to interlock my hands—one atop the other, at the midpoint of the nipple line—and prepare yourself to begin pumping up and down, set.

The clock was ticking.

This wasn’t the very first time I’d been associated with an emergency situation that needed CPR. When I was a teenage swimming pool lifeguard, a 74-year-old swimmer fell unconscious one summertime afternoon. After I pulled her out of the water, 5 other guards and I carried out CPR on her for a number of long minutes up until paramedics showed up. She passed away days later on.  

Now here I was once again, in person with somebody holding on to life—just this time, it was an enjoyed one, and my training was rusty.

In my lifeguarding days, I was frequently drilled on the CPR treatments for babies, kids, and grownups. Was it 15 compressions to 2 breaths for a grownup? Or 30 to 2? I was blanking. “What are the ratios?” I blurted out.

The dispatcher, recognizing I was at least rather CPR conversant, took the minute. No breaths needed, he stated. “Just stay on my count.”

That’s precisely what I did, according to the call audio. I counted aloud with the dispatcher, utilizing my upper-body weight to push down on Todd’s breast bone, prior to launching: down and release, down and release. One and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 and 6 …

Time slowed. I closed my eyes. Don’t stop, I believed. After what seemed like an eternity, I heard sirens approaching.

“The public assumes that if they call 911 and someone’s in cardiac arrest that they’re going to get [CPR] instructions,” states Michael Kurz, a University of Alabama cardiologist and the volunteer chair of the American Heart Association’s T-CPR Job Force. “That’s not the case. It is the minority of cardiac arrests that receive that instruction.”

If I’ve found out anything in the weeks and months I’ve invested rebuilding the occasions of that night, and investigating the accessibility of T-CPR across the country, it’s that we were really, really fortunate. Dial 911 to report a heart attack, and depending upon where you are—a huge city, a rural town, or someplace in between—you might be informed to wait up until assistance shows up, to stand idle as your enjoyed one’s fate hangs in the balance. Why didn’t that occur to us?


One day in August 1974, a stressed mom called the fire department in Phoenix, Arizona. A dispatcher listened as the lady discussed that she and her other half had actually simply pulled their 2-year-old boy from the household swimming pool, which the young child was turning purple. “He’s not breathing!” she screamed.

“I want you to stay on the line,” the dispatcher stated, keeping in mind the caller’s address. “I have a medic that is going to give you some help while I send someone.” The phone was passed to a department paramedic, Costs Toon, who had actually simply clocked in.

As Toon composed in Concepts of Emergency Situation Medical Dispatch years later on, the department’s single paramedic system was far enough away that the chances of it showing up in time to assist were slim. “The dispatchers had little or no training in this area at this point in time,” he included.

Toon took it upon himself to help the household up until the paramedic system showed up.

“I began to give the caller a crash course in CPR because the only real chance the child had of surviving was with his family doing the saving,” Toon composed. After about a minute of over-the-phone guidelines, Toon heard the young child start to sob—a relief, since if he might sob, he might breathe. “That was a pretty sweet sound for everyone involved,” Toon remembered.

The three-minute, eight-second call was a signal minute in the emerging field of pre-arrival guideline and T-CPR. Toon’s advertisement hoc actions were impressive since T-CPR procedures did not yet exist, making the episode’s tape-recording an instantaneous historic artifact. As Audrey Fraizer composed in The Journal of Emergency Situation Dispatch in 2019, word of the occasion made the nationwide rounds and, as she later on informed me, assisted in the push to standardize care in emergency situation dispatching.

By the early 1980s, the emergency situation medical system in King County, Washington, had actually ended up being the very first to carry out a T-CPR script for dispatchers fielding cardiac-arrest calls. In the time because, T-CPR’s spread has actually been substantial, albeit rather haphazard. A 2015 proof evaluation carried out by the American Heart Association recommended that, in spite of “rapid and widespread adoption,” dispatcher CPR guideline “does not lead to more successful resuscitations or improved survival.” However in Arizona, the birth place of the practice, out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest victims who were offered with T-CPR were practically 65 percent most likely to make it through than those who didn’t get T-CPR, according to a February 2020 AHA T-CPR policy declaration. Those who endured were likewise far less most likely to have actually suffered mental retardation.

8 states—Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin—presently need emergency situation dispatchers to offer T-CPR. However other states and jurisdictions—Arizona and New York City amongst them—do not. The dispatchers in these states, says April Heinze of the National Emergency Number Association (NENA), a nonprofit that works to standardize 911 services, are going to send help, but until the ambulance arrives they may not be able to assist callers much.

To be sure, about one-third of the emergency dispatch centers in the U.S.—approximately 2,000—provide some sort of medical advice via telephone, helping bystanders assist someone who is choking, seizing, or even giving birth. Of those, “many do so without being required by law,” Heinze told me last spring. In her home state of Michigan, she added, more than 70 percent of dispatch centers provide these services, despite no mandate to do so. “Many others probably also do telephone CPR just because they know that’s the right thing to do,” Heinze, a former longtime 911 dispatcher, said.

Only recently has there been a proper drive, spearheaded largely by the AHA, to integrate T-CPR into the national 911 system, which itself dates back to only the late 1960s. “The push for telephone CPR just happened within the last year or two,” Heinze told me. “Legislation is very slow. It doesn’t happen overnight.” That at least eight states have T-CPR-specific legislation on the books, well, “I think that’s actually pretty good, to be honest with you.”


Still, nearly 50 years since Bill Toon’s impromptu T-CPR guidance, fewer than half of those who experience cardiac arrest outside of a hospital in America receive bystander CPR. Lay-rescuer rates are especially low in minority communities, due to both a lower overall availability of T-CPR and a widespread fear that involvement with a 911 call will lead to encounters with police or immigration authorities. The main obstacle to scaling up T-CPR, however, remains the patchwork nature of 911 itself. Though the national system is coordinated by the Federal Communications Commission, 32 states have adopted “home rule,” meaning that 911 and other services fall under local or regional control. As a result, implementing universal, consistent T-CPR programs is slowed by funding and staffing shortages and communication problems.

The AHA has argued that T-CPR is overwhelmingly cost-effective compared with other measures designed to reduce the time to first chest compression. Yet states and localities have limited budgets for new emergency-services initiatives. And 911 dispatchers, who are in short supply nationwide, were overburdened even before the start of the coronavirus pandemic. They are at the crux of a tightly choreographed feat of adrenaline, transportation, and communication; a high-stress job performed on marathon shifts, with varying degrees of training, and for low pay. Given the existing demands on dispatchers, who are disproportionately women, some are understandably wary of being held accountable for negative outcomes. “If anything goes wrong,” Heinze said, “the liability then falls more on the dispatcher than it does on the organization.”

Complicating matters is the fact that none of the nearly 6,000 emergency dispatch centers in the U.S. operates in exactly the same way. So when a 911 call from one area is routed to a dispatch center in the next town over—a not-uncommon occurrence—a caller may be transferred from a dispatcher trained in T-CPR to one who is not. And by the time responders arrive, it could be too late for someone like Todd in the throes of cardiac arrest.

Even when a bystander is lucky enough to connect with the right dispatcher, there are many points when things can go wrong. The reality is that not all bystanders can or will act.

Some simply aren’t physically capable of doing so. CPR requires two hands and has been compared to shoveling snow or walking through sand; one must push down 2.5 inches on the victim’s chest 100 to 120 times a minute in order to generate enough cardiac output. “It’s very tiring,” Fazzino, the FDNY liaison, explained.

Others might be concerned about infection risk, a worry inflamed by the coronavirus pandemic. Still others might be hesitant to perform CPR for fear of inadvertently causing physical harm, or of interfering with what they believe fate has decided for the victim.

To avoid these pitfalls in the course of T-CPR, dispatchers such as Adolfo Bonafoux don’t ask many questions once they’ve established that someone is calling on behalf of a person who is not breathing. “I will tell you what to do,” says Bonafoux, who fields emergency medical calls at the heavily fortified, Bronx-based PSAC II, one of New York City’s two public-safety answering centers.

By not asking questions or for a caller’s permission, “it takes the option away from you,” Bonafoux explained to me. “You’re more willing to act and follow my direction. Because if I give you the choice, you’re gonna stop and think. You’re gonna start to weigh all the variables. And that time is very valuable.”

Bonafoux is a former U.S. Army medic with 20 years of emergency-medical-service experience. He joined the FDNY in 2007, first as a paramedic and then, after being injured in the field, as a dispatcher. (He has formal training in, amongst other things, T-CPR protocols, a requirement instituted by the department’s medical directors.) Technically, he’s what’s known as an ARD, or assignment-receiving dispatcher. He isn’t the first person a caller talks to—that would be a police dispatcher, who discerns whether the caller needs to speak with the police, the fire department, or emergency medical services, and notes the caller’s location. Bonafoux receives the medical calls transferred from that police dispatcher, and handles the pre-arrival medical portion of the relay.

“My philosophy is if you’re not willing to do it, you’re going to stop me,” Bonafoux said. “Obviously I can’t force anybody over the phone to do anything. So I take an aggressive stance. A lot of times people, in a pressure situation, they’ll just do. They won’t hesitate, they won’t think about it, they’ll just do.”

Following Todd’s accident, I suspected that simply asking “What are the ratios?” had indicated to our dispatcher that I was familiar with CPR. And because of that baseline, it didn’t take much to get me to go.

Bonafoux later confirmed that hunch. He was the voice on the other end of the line, who walked us out of the depths of what Lex and I have taken to calling the Bad Night. “Muscle memory,” he said. “Once you have done it before, you remember it. Your brain starts remembering it. Your body remembers how to do it. That all contributed to the success of your father-in-law.”


The first responders, a paramedic team, arrived on the scene at 7:44:55 p.m., followed by the engine company, an FDNY lieutenant, and basic and advanced life-support units.

“From the time that the call comes in to the time that somebody is actually standing there, a professional provider, is [about] four minutes,” Fazzino told me over the phone, as he paged through our case file. The “real magic,” he said, is in that response time.

I remember a paramedic from the first unit crouching beside me, slinging a life-support bag off her shoulder and asking how long I’d been going at it, before relieving me. “Would you have guessed that was, you know, two and a half minutes of CPR you did?” Fazzino asked. “You get that serious fight-or-flight adrenaline rush. Your sense is enhanced. It becomes very surreal.” What felt like an eternity was really 150 seconds.

By 8 p.m., Todd had been shocked seven times with a portable defibrillator—typical, Fazzino said, for ventricular fibrillation, the kind of electrical disturbance of the heart that Todd experienced. Responders, now numbering at least a half-dozen, ran Todd’s electrocardiogram. That included the multiple defibrillation attempts, medications administered, and intubation.

Start to finish, the event clocked in at about 35 minutes, on par for this type of resuscitative effort in the field. Total call duration, including the T-CPR? Six minutes.

By 8:20 p.m., Todd was loaded into an ambulance. Lex and I got into a second ambulance, which followed closely as our caravan sped toward NYU Langone, the nearest hospital, about 10 minutes away. Port Authority officials temporarily halted Queens-Midtown tunnel traffic to allow us to slip through. I remember the lights streaking past our windows.

Todd was shocked an eighth time after being reeled into the emergency room. A long night was still ahead of us. But he now had a pulse—a testament to the assistance we’d gotten in those crucial first moments.  

Without T-CPR, “God forbid, what could have happened to your father-in-law?” asked Democratic Representative Norma Torres of California. “You wouldn’t have had somebody talking you through that.”

Torres, a former 911 operator in Los Angeles, is the lead sponsor of the 911 SAVES Act, a bipartisan bill that aims to reclassify 911 operators and other public-safety telecommunicators as “protective service occupations” under the Office of Management and Budget’s Standard Occupational Classification System. As it stands, dispatchers like Bonafoux are classified more as office secretaries. Torres wants to change that federal labor designation—with no disrespect to secretarial workers, she said—to encourage states to recognize dispatchers as crucial workers, recognition that in some states could exempt them from government furlough. Without dispatchers, Torres said, “we can’t get the help that we need.”   

A recently formed NENA-AHA working group, meanwhile, is focused on further standardizing T-CPR. (The AHA, for its part, has also launched Don’t Die of Doubt, a campaign to address the “alarming drop” since the start of the pandemic in 911 calls and ER visits by people needing urgent medical care after a stroke or heart attack.) But it would seem that scaling up T-CPR is as much about recognizing and supporting dispatchers as it is training lay people in CPR, something Lex and I have undertaken in the aftermath of our experience.

Here’s what I do know: The FDNY location from which the responding units were dispatched, is mere blocks from the restaurant. NYU Langone happens to be one of the country’s top cardiac-care hospitals, too. Not only did I have the advantages of previous CPR training and Bonafoux’s experienced help, however we were in the right place at the right moment. Both luck and privilege—our well-appointed location, my previous training—were on my family’s side.

But the further I dig into the night of March 21, 2019, the clearer it becomes that I won’t ever be able to fully account for what transpired. I’d been on the fence about joining Lex and Todd for dinner, but made the last-minute decision to go. What if I hadn’t? It’s also entirely possible that, had Lex not immediately cried out for someone to call 911, kick-starting the “chain of survival,” this story would have a much different finale.

I asked Fazzino how many out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were reported in New York City in 2019, and of those patients, how many survived up until either emergency situation services arrived or they reached a hospital. He couldn’t say for sure, but noted that the “vast majority” of patients behind such emergency requests that come into the city’s two call centers ultimately do not make it.

Of the minority of people who do survive, how many of them get to go home? That number, Fazzino said, is even smaller. Todd did what many people have not, “which is to cross the line and then come back to tell the story about it.”

The first night at the hospital, Todd was put into therapeutic hypothermia—“on ice,” the doctors called it—in an attempt to redirect blood from the rest of his body to his brain. We were informed he would stay in this medically induced coma for up to 72 hours. The next morning, less than 18 hours after his heart gave out, he woke up on his own. I can still see the look of surprise and excitement on the attending nurse’s face. “Who did the bystander CPR?” one of his doctors asked. Lex pointed at me. “Well done.”

The following evening, in a quiet moment in a hospital lounge, Lex and I decided to get married. Todd was able to come to the wedding, three months later.

“By the way,” he said, shortly before being discharged. “Thanks.”

Jobber Wiki author Frank Long included to this report.