The CDC’s Mask Guidance Gives Vaccines a Fighting Chance

America’s split with masks ended up being a quick hiatus. After getting their shots in the spring and early summertime, lots of people figured they might discard their face coverings for great—a belief the CDC taken shape in Might, when the firm provided completely inoculated individuals its true blessing to mostly give with masking, inside and out. The other day, the firm rotated back, advising that even completely immunized individuals use masks under particular high-risk situations, consisting of in public indoor areas in parts of the nation where the infection is rising, Director Rochelle Walensky stated in a press instruction. (She defined locations where brand-new case numbers go beyond 50 per 100,000 individuals in the previous 7 days; that presently consists of about two-thirds of U.S. counties.) With an ultra-contagious SARS-CoV-2 alternative rampaging, face coverings are being hired to as soon as again supplement the security used by vaccines.

The CDC’s choice, which lots of public-health scientists have actually been expecting for weeks, may appear like a flip-flop or a fumble, some sort of masking mea culpa. However to me, and the professionals I talked with, redonning masks (or just keeping them on, as lots of people have) is not some outrageous regression to the dark ages of the pre-vaccination period. Nor is it an indictment of the COVID-19 vaccines, which are doing a remarkable job of reducing the worldwide concern of illness. Rather, it’s a doubling down on 2 defenses that we understand work, and work well together.

Like any vibrant duo, masks and vaccines share an objective—avoiding infection, illness, and infection transmission—and they achieve it in complementary methods. “They should be seen hand in hand, as helping one another,” Abraar Karan, an infectious-disease doctor at Stanford University, informed me. We now comprehend this idea much better than ever previously, and lots of professionals believe anybody who wishes to decrease their danger of capturing and passing the infection ought to utilize both, CDC requirements regardless of.

Masks, after all, are reemerging in reaction to the fast-changing conditions around us—providing another layer of security at a time when we require it most, in similar method we look for umbrellas when it rains, sun block when it’s warm, and much better security systems when our community criminal activity rates tick up. “With Delta being such a dominant force, we need to include every layer we can think of,” Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist at Yale University, informed me. The vaccines are outstanding. However while numerous individuals stay susceptible, and the infection continues to shape-shift, shots can’t carry the concern of security alone. Our understanding of masks is evolving; for now, they still have a crucial role to play, as a partner to the shots we’ll be depending on long term.


Partnering masks and vaccines is, in lots of ways, a natural move. If an unmasked, unvaccinated body is like an unprotected bank, vulnerable to burglars, these two tools are akin to the different high-security measures used to prevent a heist. Shots steel the institution from the inside out, papering its walls with most-wanted posters and alerting bank personnel to upswings in local crime. Supersensitive alarms get installed at windows; extra security guards are stationed throughout the building; the local sheriff’s office is put on speed dial. Should thieves try to force their way in, they’ll be recognized as familiar foes and get arrested on the spot, maybe before any real damage can be done.

COVID-19 vaccines have proved themselves ace at deploying these safeguards and preventing symptomatic disease, especially in its most severe forms, even when tangoing with variants. That is the classic vaccination modus operandi: fortifying our defenses so a pathogen has higher hurdles to clear.

But even vaccinated immune systems can be somewhat foiled when local conditions change. A well-armored bank will still be better off than an unsecured one, but could struggle to thwart career criminals—ones who are savvy enough to show up en masse, move fast, and use brutal tactics. And more of those robbers might make it out of the scuffle unscathed and eager to hit up a neighboring bank. Vaccine-prepped immune systems are still mostly clobbering Delta, the SARS-CoV-2 variant that’s now found in 80 percent of the virus samples being sequenced across the nation: People who have gotten all their shots are a lot less likely to experience symptoms, hospitalization, or death, and don’t seem to be responsible for much virus transmission. But Delta also appears to be especially good at accumulating in airways, and seems to eke past some of our immune defenses. These troubling traits might make it easier for the virus to mildly sicken some inoculated individuals, and perhaps spread from them as well. Vaccines are an imperfect shield; variants like Delta find their way through the cracks.

Masks cut down on all of this risk. If vaccines shore up security from the inside, face coverings (which, you know, literally cover your face) erect a sturdy blockade around the bank’s exterior—fences, bars, better locks, and ID checks at an intruder’s typical point of entry. Masks are physical barriers; they’re “great at preventing exposure to large doses of virus” before the invaders even enter the premises, Iwasaki said. And in the same way that it’s easier for security guards to incapacitate just a few crooks busting through the door, “the less virus you need to fight off, the better—I think that’s pretty clear,” Marion Pepper, an immunologist at the University of Washington, told me. Masks, in other words, curb the amount of labor our immune systems are forced to do—in some cases, maybe eliminating the threat entirely. In that way, they accomplish something vaccines can’t: Unlike immune cells, they don’t have to wait until after the virus has broken into the body to act. That’s an especially big asset for individuals whose bodies are less equipped to respond to vaccines, including the elderly and the immunocompromised, populations the CDC says should mask more vigilantly indoors, regardless of where they live.

Masks might be a particularly important pairing for our current vaccines, which are administered in an arm muscle, rather than the nose—SARS-CoV-2’s natural point of entry. The shot’s contents will still effectively school immune cells and molecules all over the body, but they won’t do much to marshal defenders that specialize in guarding the slimy tissues carpeting the airway and gastrointestinal tract. It’s the difference between keeping security guards on retainer in a bank’s back room, and posting agents at the building’s entrance: Defenses will be mounted either way, but fighters who have to scramble from one location to another will probably lose speed and oomph. A barrier that waylays some viral particles, however, might buy these guards time to rush to the fore. Masks reduce the strain on the body, and keep immune cells in a zone where they can comfortably fight.

Our vaccines are very powerful, but their performance was first measured in clinical trials while masking was widespread. Study volunteers were “asked to act as if they were unvaccinated, and keep all other protections in place,” Michal Tal, an immunologist at Stanford, told me. The startlingly low rates of illness among vaccinated volunteers in those studies likely aren’t attributable to the jabs alone. Even against an earlier iteration of the virus, the shots were being supported by an entourage of precautions; mirroring that initial tag-team approach might not be a bad idea.


The combo of masks and vaccines does a number on outbound viruses as well. Unimmunized, unmasked bodies are good stages for pathogens to reproduce unfettered, then hop into a nearby human. Vaccines coach immune cells to vanquish as many viral particles as they can; masks trap any potential escapees inside. “People need to remember we live in very interconnected societies,” Karan said. While vaccinated people might stay mostly safe from serious disease, plenty of the people around them—especially those who remain uninoculated, including young kids—remain at much higher risk. A infection that keeps spreading, even silently, makes the pandemic that much harder to end.

Karan points out that masks are also a great insurance policy. Vaccines still carry uncertainties: Although experts think that COVID-19 shots are reducing all forms of infection and disease, the extent to which they block long COVID remains murky. Researchers also don’t know when vaccine-trained immune cells might start to forget the coronavirus, or when the pathogen might mutate into more evasive forms. If we end up needing boosters or reformulated vaccines, face coverings might keep some people from falling sick while those reinforcements arrive. “I think masks are our lowest hanging fruit to buy us time,” Karan said.

Some people are already criticizing the CDC’s announcement as a baffling U-turn, maybe even a bellwether of worse restrictions to come. Experts told me that’s the wrong way to view the update, which should be considered an improvement over the status quo—a step forward, not a step back. Combining masks and vaccines reaffirms that we know how to protect ourselves against this fast-changing virus, and match the curveballs it throws our way. Taison Bell, a critical-care and infectious-disease physician at UVA Health in Virginia, told me he sees masks as empowering—not some handicap he’s been saddled with. “It doesn’t represent something that restricts my freedom,” he said. “It allows me to enter a space and do what I need to do.”

The shift in guidance is, in a way, crystallizing a new attitude toward masking, one that will probably stick around in some form or another, even after the pandemic comes to an official close. These past 16 months have underscored the power of masks to avoid all manner of pathogens, and stave off some medical conditions; face coverings might become standard practice, socially, seasonally, as people get more in tune with public health. That’s the upside of crisis. It forces us to react, and hopefully react well. It calls on us to adapt, when we realize our circumstances have actually altered.

Jobber Wiki author Frank Long contributed to this report.