Going to space is a real pain in the back

Story highlights

Astronauts can briefly acquire 2 inches in height however suffer muscle loss and neck and back pain

More countermeasures including workout might assist reduce discomfort and muscle loss

(CNN) —  

A six-month remain on the International Spaceport station can be a discomfort in the back for astronauts. While they might acquire as much as 2 inches in height briefly, that result is accompanied by a weakening of the muscles supporting the spinal column, according to a brand-new research study.

In 1994, astronaut Mark Lee had his height measured by fellow astronaut Jerry Linenger as part of a study on back pain.

In 1994, astronaut Mark Lee had his height determined by fellow astronaut Jerry Linenger as part of a research study on neck and back pain.

IMAGE:
NASA

Astronauts have actually been reporting neck and back pain considering that the late 1980s, when area objectives grew longer. Their flight medical information reveal that majority of United States astronauts have actually reported neck and back pain, specifically in their lower backs. As much as 28% suggested that it was moderate to serious discomfort, in some cases lasting the period of their objective.

Things don’t enhance when they go back to Earth’s gravity. In the very first year after their objective, astronauts have a 4.3 times greater danger of a herniated disc.

“It’s sort of an ongoing problem that has been a significant one with cause for concern,” stated Dr. Douglas Chang, very first author of the brand-new research study and associate teacher of orthopedic surgical treatment and chief of physical medication and rehab service at University of California San Diego Health. “So this study is the first to take it from just an epidemiological description and look at the possible mechanisms for what is going on with the astronauts’ backs.”

Much attention has actually been concentrated on intervertebral discs, the spongy shock absorbers that sit in between our vertebrae, as the offender for the back concerns that astronauts deal with. However the brand-new research study runs counter to that thinking. In this research study, moneyed by NASA, Chang’s group observed little to no modifications in the discs, their height or swelling.

What they did observe in 6 astronauts who invested 4 to 7 months on the ISS was an incredible degeneration and atrophying of the supporting musculature in the lumbar (lower) spinal column, Chang stated. These muscles are the ones that assist us remain upright, walk and move our upper extremities in an environment like Earth, while securing discs and ligaments from stress or injury.

In microgravity, the upper body extends, probably due to spine dumping, in which the spine curvature flattens. Astronauts likewise aren’t utilizing the muscle tone in their lower backs due to the fact that they aren’t flexing over or utilizing their lower backs to move, like in the world, Chang stated. This is where the discomfort and stiffening happens, just like if the astronauts remained in a body cast for 6 months.

MRI scans prior to and after the objectives exposed that the astronauts experienced a 19% decline in these muscles throughout their flight. “Even after six weeks of training and reconditioning here one Earth, they are only getting about 68% of their losses restored,” Chang described.

Chang and his group consider this a severe concern for long-term manned objectives, specifically when thinking about a journey to Mars that might take 8 or 9 months simply to reach the Red World. That journey, and the astronauts’ prospective time invested in Martian gravity – 38% of the surface area gravity in the world – produces the capacity for muscle atrophy and deconditioning.

The group’s future research study will likewise take a look at reported neck concerns, where there can be a lot more incidents of muscle atrophy and a slower healing duration. They are likewise intending to partner with another university on inflight ultrasounds of the spinal column, to take a look at what takes place to astronauts while they are on the spaceport station.

Since no one likes neck and back pain and muscle loss, Chang recommended countermeasures that ought to be contributed to the currently 2- to three-hour exercise astronauts have on the spaceport station every day. Though their workout devices concentrate on a variety of concerns consisting of cardiovascular and skeletal health, the group thinks that area tourists likewise require to consist of a core-strenghtening program concentrated on the spinal column.

In addition to the “fetal tuck” position astronauts use in microgravity to stretch their lower back or alleviate back pain, Chang suggested yoga. But he knows that is easier said than done.

“A lot of yoga depends on the effects of gravity, like downward dog, where a stretch through the hamstring, calf muscles, back of the neck and shoulders are possible because of gravity. When you remove that, you may not have the same benefit.”

Any machines on the space station also have to be designed with regards to weight, size and even the reverberations they could produce on the station.

Scott Parazynski, who walked in space seven times, assisted with construction on the space station in 2007.

Scott Parazynski, who walked in space seven times, assisted with construction on the space station in 2007.

PHOTO:
NASA

Chang and the other researchers brainstormed with a virtual reality team about different workout programs that would enable astronauts to invite friends, family or even Twitter followers to join them in a virtual workout, making the daily repetition of their workouts more fun and competitive.

One of Chang’s teammates has felt this pain personally. Dr. Scott Parazynski is the only astronaut to summit Mount Everest. He experienced a herniated disc after returning from the ISS to Earth. Less than a year later, when he attempted to climb Everest the first time, he had to be airlifted off. After a rehabilitation process, he eventually made the summit. Now, he speaks to current astronauts about the ways they can contribute to studies about their health in microgravity.

Follow CNN Health on Facebook and Twitter

  • See the latest news and share your comments with CNN Health on Facebook and Twitter.

Keeping the astronauts healthy and fit is the least they can do, Chang stated.

“When a crew comes back, they say on one side of the space station, they see this beautiful blue planet,” he stated. “Everything they hold dear to them is on this fragile little planet. And they look out the other window and just see infinity stretching off into the blackness, and they come back with a various sense of themselves and their location in deep space.

“All of them are committed to furthering space knowledge and making incremental steps forward in any way they can for the next crew.”

Jobber Wiki author Frank Long contributed to this report.